We are talking a lot about lies at the moment: a little deviance, a bad habit that only affects certain politicians or a real illness? We take stock.
It is a bit harsh for politicians who are, yes, liars but like many. To answer this unusual medical question, it can be said that there are 4 categories of liars, but all are not sickness. There is lie and lie! Is it normal or human to lie? Is this the sign that something is wrong? Normality or deviance of the brain? It depends on the type of lie.
1. The mythomaniacs
The first category, the one that unquestionably concerns medicine, is mythomania. With a nuance: as always in the popular language one diverts the medical terms and the "mytho" becomes a "talker" or a "dreamer" ... These signs are far from the reality of the mythomania, which is a real disease provoking a lot of suffering. The mythomaniac feels an urge to lie. Because he finds there a solution to answer to the scorn he feels for himself. It's an "abjection of consciousness", as Boris Cyrulnick so nicely says.
2. The "cynical and utilitarian" liar, the most common liar
We do not talk about illness anymore. In this case, lies are used to abuse and manipulate. But between lies, this liar is quiet, while the mythomaniac lies for the pleasure of attracting attention.
There is a third category, very special: the "denial", which could be defined as the refusal to take charge of certain realities. You know for example the "denial of pregnancy", these women who give birth without knowing it.
4. The false truth acceptable
Finally, medicine can not approach the chapter of lies without mentioning a fourth and last category, which doctors call prudently "the false acceptable truth". For example lying to his patient so as not to hurt him ... A debate that, contrary to what many doctors say is far from settled. Lie to relieve. Everyone will appreciate the usefulness ... And if possible will notify his doctor!
5. Liars never heal spontaneously
The liars never talk to their doctors. Even the great mythomaniacs do not consult spontaneously. This always happens in the context of a judicial expertise.
But to make the difference between the "mytho", permanent liar who is sick and the occasional liar who is just cynical and for whom a treatment will be useless, is not easy contrary to what one can think. This is important because justice excuses mytho and condemns the other. This requires a long and careful psychiatric examination and treatment for the mytho.
6. The child is a liar
In his case, it is a defense mechanism, a negation of a reality that makes him feel guilty. To come back to the lies of some of our policies that seems to intensify: the reality is not so simple and lies a behavior difficult to classify. To generalize it makes it a practical trivialization ... But it must be remembered that the basis of community life presupposes that the other person is telling the truth.